vrijdag, december 07, 2018

Nog te maken: Meidoornbessen-appelchutney

Meidoornbessen-appelchutney met gember

1 kg bessen
1 kg appels (geschild en in stukjes gesneden)
1 kleine ui (kan weggelaten worden)
1l azijn (cider appelazijn)
650g suiker
2 theel. gemberwortel (poeder, of verse wortel fijngemalen iets meer dan 2 theel.)
1/2 theel. kruidnagel (poeder)
peper naar smaak

  • Zorg ervoor dat alle steeltjes van de bessen verwijderd zijn
  • Doe de gewassen bessen samen met de azijn in een pan en breng aan de kook
  • Laat ongeveer 30 minuten op een laag vuur zachtjes koken
  • Eventueel het mengsel door een zeef halen en zet de pan met de vloeistof weer op het vuur
  • Voeg hier de stukjes appel, gesnipperde ui, suiker en de kruidnagel, gember en peper aan toe
  • Laat het geheel koken tot de appel zacht is, maar nog wel zijn vorm behoud.
  • Doe de chutney in gesteriliseerde potten.

Meer over meidoorn https://sites.google.com/site/kruidwis/kruiden-a/crataegus-laevigata-meidoorn

In medieval England, children ate the plant's fruit, which was considered to be very nutritious. The fruit was also used in Russia to make wine (Sowerby). In some regions of Europe the dry pulp of the fruits of C. laevigata and C. monogyna has been eaten or added to flour. In West Asia, the larger, more fleshy and flavorful fruits of C. aronia (L.) Bosc. (C. azarolus) are commonly harvested from the wild and eaten fresh. These two species are variable. In their native ranges, seed from superior forms is selected and planted at field edges or on non-arable land.
The fruits are collected from the mountains around Peking and other parts of China and mixed with sugar to make a jam or jelly or a sweet wine. These, along with candied fruit slices, are commonly sold in markets and by street vendors. The sweet and sour flavor is thought to support and activate the digestion (Lu, Smith & Stuart, Hooper).
The nutlets of C. laevigata and C. monogyna have been found at a number of archeological sites in Europe, from the Neolithic to Roman time. Crataegus aronia seeds have been found in Bronze Age sites in Israel, as well as other archeological sites in the Near East (Zohary and Hopf 1988).
At least a dozen species of Crataegus are documented as food plants of various native groups of North America. Often the fruits were dried and stored for winter use. For an enumeration of native groups that used hawthorn as food, plus references, see E. Yanovsky (1936).

The first work on the flavonoids of C. laevigata and C. monogyna was conducted in 1953, when hyperoside, vitexin-4'-L-rhamnoside, quercetin, and vitexin were isolated by Kranen-Fiedler (Kowalewski & Mrugasiewicz). Since then, at least 30 more flavonoids have been isolated from these plants. The classes of flavonoids that have been particularly well studied in hawthorn and have shown activity are flavone derivatives such as hyperoside and vitexin-4'-O-rhamnoside; oligomeric procyanidins (with varying degrees of polymerization); polymeric procyanidins; and the catechin l-epicatechin. Hawthorn fruits, as well as the leaves, contain catechin polymers, called condensed tannins, which account for the astringent effect noted by Gerard in the late 1500s. Colorless condensed tannins can be transformed to phlobaphenes which have a bright red color. These "tannin reds," as they are sometimes called, have been ascribed cardioactive properties. List & Hörhammer mention that these red, crystalizable pigments (found mainly in the fruits, and to a lesser extent in the autumn leaves) have the same activity as pure anthocyanins, i.e., they have a tonic effect on the cardiac muscles, are negatively chronotropic and dromotropic, and also show the bradycardiac effect commonly noted for Crataegus which is supported in a study by Hahn, et al.

The major flavonoids in Crataegus preparations are vitexin-2"rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in flowers, with the addition of vitexin in the leaves (Tittel, G. & Wagner, 1982). One commercial preparation containing a mixture of total flavonoids has also been tested for activity (Crataemon). Other tested fractions include a preparation of purified triterpenic acids, unpurified triterpenic acids, oleanolic, oleanolic acids, and a fraction of total saponins.

Additional Notes on Pharmacology: 1."High doses of Crataegus agents lead to a decrease in cardiac output, low dosages increase it." 2."Lowers pathologically increased pyruvic and lactic acid levels" (which may be increased after heart damage). 3."[causes]...a decrease in heart frequency along with heightened systolic discharge and cardiac output after O(2)-deficit respiration of a healthy person and the prevention of ECG-alterations due to hypoxia." (Adapted from List & Hörhammer)

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